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APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide

A Wintec Library guide to referencing in APA 7th edition style

How do I cite a long quotation (40+ words)?

It is occasionally necessary to include long quotations in your work—for example, an important definition of a concept or theory. If the quotation is longer than 40 words, it is known as a 'block quotation' and has a few specific formatting requirements:

  • Start the quotation on a new line
  • Indent the whole block from the left margin (the Publication Manual recommends 0.5", the default in MS Word).
  • Double-line space the entire block quotation
  • Do not enclose the quotation in quotation marks
  • Either:
    • Cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page/para. number in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation or
    • Cite the source in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation.


Jones (2007) describes the importance of mentoring in developing nursing leadership:  

The mentor has the responsibility to create opportunities for professional growth and involvement, whereas the protégé is responsible for responding to these opportunities. The mentor has the responsibility to create opportunities for the protégé to gain recognition for the work accomplished; the protégé is accountable for being responsible and reliable with the work accepted. (p. 26)

For more information, see the Publication Manual, section 8.27, pp. 272–273.

How do I cite multiple different sources in the same parentheses?

If a sentence includes information paraphrased or quoted from several sources, you can include each source in a single set of parentheses at the end of the sentence. Arrange the sources alphabetically by author, and separate each one with a semicolon. For example

(Brown, 2006, p. 72; Jones & Allen, 2005, p. 12; Smith, 2014, p. 35).

How do I cite someone quoted in another author's work (a secondary citation)?

Occasionally, you may wish to quote or paraphrase information in a resource that has been attributed to another author (i.e., not the author of the resource you're reading). Ideally, you should find the original source and quote/paraphrase directly from that, providing a reference list entry for the original work.

For example, if you read a work by Andrews in which White is quoted, you should try to find White's work, quote or paraphrase from that, and include it in your reference list. If it's not possible to find or read White's work, however, you should acknowledge White as the original source, followed by Andrews as the secondary source. Use the phrase 'as cited in' to indicate one source has been cited in another.


Narrative citation
White et al. (1999, as cited in Andrews, 2006) argue that …

Parenthetical citation
… (White et al., 1999, as cited in Andrews, 2006).

Include the publication date of the original work (if known). Only Andrews' work appears in the reference list.

See the Publication Manual (7th ed.), section 8.6, p. 258. 

Can I use acronyms of corporate authors in in-text citations? 

If a corporate author is commonly referred to by an acronym or abbreviation, you can use the acronym/abbreviation in text. Use the full name of the author in your first citation and include the shortened form. Second and subsequent citations of the source can simply use the shortened form. For example:

Style First citation Subsequent citations
Narrative citation According to the Ministry of Health (MOH, 2013)...

The MOH (2013) states...

Parenthetical citation (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2013, p. 9)

(MOH, 2013, p. 9)


It is not necessary to include the acronym/abbreviation in the reference list entry; simply write the author's name in full. 

Do I have to write the full name of the publisher?

  • Omit the words 'Publishers', 'Publishing', 'Company', 'Incorporated', and the abbreviations 'Co.' and' Inc.'
  • Keep the words 'Books' and 'Press'.
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