When referencing in APA style, you need to include a short in-text citation each time you paraphrase or quote material. Each in-text citation should have a corresponding full reference list entry.
An in-text citation is found within the body of your assignment or research paper. It briefly acknowledges the source of the information you have used. In-text citations should include:
As noted, each in-text citation links to a full reference list entry at the end of the document. Your reference list provide the full details needed to locate the source/information.
There are two ways to format your in-text citations.
Narrative citations integrate the author's name with your sentence. E.g:
Parenthetical citations include details of author, date, and page numbers (where applicable) in a single set of parentheses at the end of a quotation or sentence that contains paraphrased material. For example:
The following paragraph demonstrates what a passage of text looks like with in-text citations, and includes both direct and indirect citations (red text used for emphasis).
Each in-text citation corresponds to a full reference list entry below.
Axcell & Carlisle (2018) argue… (p. 2).
(Axcell & Carlisle, 2018, p. 2).
Three to five authors:
Include all authors in the first in text citation and then when you refer to that source again, just use the first name and then et al.
Axcell, Carlisle, and Jones (2018) argue… (p. 3) then Axcell et al. argue... (p. 3)
(Axcell, Carlisle, & Jones, 2018, p. 3) then (Axcell et al., 2018, p. 3).
Six or more authors:
Use only the first author and et al. for all citations.
Axcell et al. found… (p. 3).
(Axcell et al., 2018, p. 3).
Some things to remember about formatting:
Incorporate quotations into your discussion:
When quotations are complete sentences:
Yes, you can after the first citation. For example:
|First citation||Subsequent citations|
|The Ministry of Health (MOH, 2013)…||
|(Ministry of Health [MOH], 2013)||
See APA Manual, p. 177
It’s not necessary to put the abbreviation after the corporate author’s name in the reference list; simply list it in full.
Refer to this table to see the rules that apply:
|Single author with multiple works from different years are listed by year of publication, beginning with the earliest year.||
Smith, B. (2007).
|Single authors who are also co-authors are listed before the co-authored work (even if the co-authored work was published earlier).|| Brown, A. (2010).
Brown, A., & Smith, B. (2008).
| Single author with works published in the same year are arranged alphabetically by title and then a lowercase letter (a, b, c,) is added after the publication year.
| Smith, B. (2011a). Birth control…
Smith, B. (2011b). Pre-conception checklist…
See APA Manual, p. 182
Where there is more than one source being referred to, list them alphabetically by the first author’s surname. Separate the citations with semi-colons. For example:
Putting an in-text citation after every sentence from one source is distracting. Instead, introduce the source early, then refer to the author by name or pronoun. If you use the author’s name as part of the narrative, you only need to put the year in parentheses once, at the start. However, the year always needs to be included when the author’s name is in parentheses. For example:
See APA Manual, p. 174, section 6.11
Note that tutors would not want you to paraphrase a whole paragraph in this way. Probably 2 or 3 sentences would be acceptable. It is also not good practice to paraphrase several pages into one sentence; rather break the ideas up so that they are easier for the reader to follow. Use three dots within a quote to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source, e. g. “This is the movement of the middle class . . . from schools serving low socio-economic status (SES) areas to schools serving middle SES areas” (Brett, 1994, p. 43).
This is called giving a citation from a secondary source. Often an author quotes someone else. For example, you are reading a book by Partridge and he uses a quote from a source by Crane. If you use the quote (or paraphrase it), your in-text citation will look like this:
In the reference list, you would only include the details of the book by Partridge, as that was the source that you looked at. If you think the in-text citation is too long (for example, when you are writing an assignment with a low word count), then you can look for Crane’s source and use that information in-text and in the reference list
Citing a long quote is similar to citing a short quote, except the formatting is slightly different. You need to:
Look at the example below: