Often an author quotes someone else—this is called a secondary citation. For example, you are reading a book by Partridge and he uses a quote from a source by Crane. If you use the quote (or paraphrase it), your in-text citation will look like this:
In the reference list, you would only include the details of the book by Partridge, as that was the source that you looked at. If you think the in-text citation is too long (for example, when you are writing an assignment with a low word count), then you can look for Crane’s source and use that information in-text and in the reference list.
Citing a long quote is similar to citing a short quote, except the formatting is slightly different. You need to:
Look at the example below:
If the journal has no volume or issue numbers, you can instead put the month or season into the parentheses with the year. For example:
The month or season is not required in the in-text citation - only the year. For example:
An article from a journal supplement is referenced in a similar way to a regular journal article. There are at least two different types of supplements.
If a magazine, newspaper or journal article is spread over a number of different pages, you give all page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma. For example:
Cases are another legal resource you may need to reference. These are listed alphabetically in the reference list, and always include the names of the two parties, the year in square brackets, and the NZ Law report number. A retrieval statement is necessary, either for a database or a URL. For example:
Follow this guide to reference the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights Regulation 1996 (commonly known as the Code of Rights).
Second and subsequent citations can use an abbreviated version of the code name, provided this is indicated in the first citation.
This is not legislation, but rather a professional standard or code of practice. It can be referenced as a website. For example:
OR if this source is in hard copy, i.e. a booklet (referenced the same way as a book):
No, you should write out the name of the country in full, e.g. New Zealand. For the United Kingdom, it is better to write out the name of the specific country if you know it, e.g. London, England rather than London, United Kingdom.
No, you don’t. APA says for place of publication within the United States, it is city and state abbreviation, e.g. New York, NY or Los Angeles, CA. For everywhere else, it is city and country, e.g. Melbourne, Australia.
No, you don’t. Leave out words like Publishers, Co., and Inc. Keep Books and Press.
A bibliography is a list of all sources used while researching for an assignment. A reference list is ONLY the sources that were included in the assignment, either as direct quotations or paraphrases. Tutors usually only require a reference list.
When several pages from a website are being cited in an assignment, if each page has its own URL, then these will have separate reference list entries (with the year and ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ etc.). These reference list entries will be arranged in alphabetical order of the title.
For example, if you are doing an assignment about the Fieldays at Mystery Creek, and you use information from 3 pages of the same website, your referencing information will look like this:
When citing an entire website, but not an individual webpage, just give the address of the site in the text only; no reference list entry is necessary. For example:
When citing a web page you should, where practicable, use section headings and/or paragraph numbers to direct the reader to the specific section of the page from which you took information.
If each page you use has a separate URL, you need to reference them separately. In text, list the author (often corporate), date and the section heading and/or paragraph, for example:
The corresponding reference list entry simply refers to the webpage as a whole, not the specific section/paragraph
If there is only one paragraph under the heading, simply use that heading. For example:
If there are no section headings but paragraphs are clearly defined, count from the first paragraph and give the relevant number of the paragraph from which you have take information.