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APA 6th Edition Referencing: FAQs page 2

This is a Wintec guide to help you with referencing in the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

How do I cite someone who is quoted in another person's work (a secondary citation)?

Often an author quotes someone else—this is called a secondary citation. For example, you are reading a book by Partridge and he uses a quote from a source by Crane. If you use the quote (or paraphrase it), your in-text citation will look like this:

“Self-control and success in life are strongly linked” (Crane, as cited in Partridge, 2012, p. 34).

Crane (as cited in Partridge, 2012) states that there is a definite link between self-control and how successful people are in their lives (p. 34).

In the reference list, you would only include the details of the book by Partridge, as that was the source that you looked at. If you think the in-text citation is too long (for example, when you are writing an assignment with a low word count), then you can look for Crane’s source and use that information in-text and in the reference list.

How do I cite a long quote (over 40 words)?

Citing a long quote is similar to citing a short quote, except the formatting is slightly different. You need to:

  • miss a line
  • do not change the line spacing
  • indent left and right
  • do not use quotation marks,
  • put a full-stop before the in-text citation
  • leave a line at the end.

Look at the example below:

Mentoring is an important aspect in nursing leadership.
The mentor has the responsibility to create opportunities for professional growth and involvement, whereas the protégé is responsible for responding to these opportunities. The mentor has the responsibility to create opportunities for the protégé to gain recognition for the work accomplished; the protégé is accountable for being responsible and reliable with the work accepted. (Jones, 2007, p. 26)

So beginning nurses need to take advantage of the opportunities provided by their mentor

How do I reference a journal with no volume or issue numbers, but instead a month or season?

If the journal has no volume or issue numbers, you can instead put the month or season into the parentheses with the year. For example: 

Fincher, L. H. (2013, Spring). Women’s rights at risk. Dissent. Retrieved from

Gibson, J. (2010, June). Veggie gardening with scissors and a spatula. Healthy Options, 48-49.

The month or season is not required in the in-text citation - only the year. For example:

Gibson (2010) says that veggie gardening is popular in New Zealand because vegetables grow well in the mild climate (p. 48).

How do I reference an article from a journal supplement?

An article from a journal supplement is referenced in a similar way to a regular journal article. There are at least two different types of supplements.

  1. A supplement to a particular issue of a journal. You put in the volume & issue number and add the word “Suppl.” to indicate it’s a supplement to this issue. The page numbers in this issue have an S in front of them to show it is a supplement.

Bill, C., & Ahn, J. (2015). Integrating emergency care with population health. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16(4.1, Suppl.), S14-S14. Retrieved from CINAHL Complete database.

  1. A supplement to a volume of a journal (not associated with a specific issue). In this case you simply put in the volume number and then “Suppl.” followed by the number of the supplement.

Rogers, J. W., Kinner, R. L., & Weis, V. (2013).The architecture of the gravitational lens. Astronomicity,16(Suppl. 2), 170-192.

How do I reference a magazine, newspaper or journal article which has discontinuous pages?

If a magazine, newspaper or journal article is spread over a number of different pages, you give all page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma. For example:

Lewis, G. (2014, July 30). Job losses not isolated. Hamilton Press, pp. 1, 17.

How do I reference cases (New Zealand legislation)?

Cases are another legal resource you may need to reference. These are listed alphabetically in the reference list, and always include the names of the two parties, the year in square brackets, and the NZ Law report number. A retrieval statement is necessary, either for a database or a URL. For example:

Example—reference list entry 

Crown v Thompson [2013] NZLR 617. Retrieved from LexisNexis database. 

Example—reference list entry

Milner v R [2014] NZCA 366. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from

Note: Include a retrieval date when referencing directly from the Courts of New Zealand website, as the information on there is retained publicly for 28 days only. The in text citations just list the names of the parties in italics, and the year, e.g.

Example—in-text citation
From the case Crown v Thompson [2013], we can see that this is not always problematic.

Example—in-text citation
Earlier this year Helen Milner was convicted of murdering her husband (Milner v R [2014]

How do I reference the Code of Rights?

Follow this guide to reference the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights Regulation 1996 (commonly known as the Code of Rights).

Reference list:

  • The references start with the name of Regulation; as it is Government legislation no author is given.
  • Although it is hosted on the Health and Disability Commissioner’s website, the HDC is not the author.
  • Note that no part of the reference below is in italics.
  • The date is part of the title, so it is not preceded by a comma.

Example—reference list entry

HDC Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers’ Rights Regulation 1996. Retrieved from

Example—in-text citation
This assignment focuses on the HDC Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer’s Rights 1996 (HDC Code 1996), which lays out ten basic rights that all patients are granted ...
This assignment focuses on the ten rights every patient is granted (HDC Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer’s Rights 1996 [HDC Code 1996]) …

Second and subsequent citations can use an abbreviated version of the code name, provided this is indicated in the first citation.

Example—in-text citation
The Code defines this as meaning a “holistic view of the needs of the consumer in order to achieve the best possible outcome in the circumstances” (HDC Code 1996).

Note: This code is a regulation that is treated like legislation. See Professional Codes for an example of how to reference a code that is not legislation.

How do I reference different nursing Codes of Practice, ethical codes, etc.?

This is not legislation, but rather a professional standard or code of practice. It can be referenced as a website.  For example:

New Zealand Nurses Organisation. (2010). Code of ethics. Retrieved from

OR if this source is in hard copy, i.e. a booklet (referenced the same way as a book):

New Zealand Nurses Organisation. (2010). Code of ethics. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

Do I use the abbreviated name of a country for the country of publication?

No, you should write out the name of the country in full, e.g. New Zealand. For the United Kingdom, it is better to write out the name of the specific country if you know it, e.g. London, England rather than London, United Kingdom.

Do I put the Australian states in for place of publication?

No, you don’t.  APA says for place of publication within the United States, it is city and state abbreviation, e.g. New York, NY or Los Angeles, CA. For everywhere else, it is city and country, e.g. Melbourne, Australia.

Do I have to write out the full name of the publisher?

No, you don’t. Leave out words like Publishers, Co., and Inc.  Keep Books and Press.

What's the difference between a bibliography and reference list?

A bibliography is a list of all sources used while researching for an assignment. A reference list is ONLY the sources that were included in the assignment, either as direct quotations or paraphrases. Tutors usually only require a reference list.

How do I reference multiple pages from one website?

When several pages from a website are being cited in an assignment, if each page has its own URL, then these will have separate reference list entries (with the year and ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ etc.). These reference list entries will be arranged in alphabetical order of the title.

For example, if you are doing an assignment about the Fieldays at Mystery Creek, and you use information from 3 pages of the same website, your referencing information will look like this:

Example—reference list entry 

Fieldays. (n.d.-a). Business centre. Retrieved from

Fieldays. (n.d.-b). Media centre: Exhibition areas. Retrieved from

Fieldays. (n.d.-c). Visitor centre: Event information. Retrieved from


Example—in-text citations*
Fieldays (n.d.-a)

Fieldays (n.d.-b)

Fieldays (n.d.-c)​


Note: If a year is given, use this and a letter without a hyphen, e.g. 2014a. However, if there is no date, use n.d. and a hyphen before the letter, as in the examples above. 


How do I refer to a whole website?

When citing an entire website, but not an individual webpage, just give the address of the site in the text only; no reference list entry is necessary. For example:

New Zealand History Online has some good interactive pages that are a useful resource for teachers

How can I reference a specific section of a webpage?

When citing a web page you should, where practicable, use section headings and/or paragraph numbers to direct the reader to the specific section of the page from which you took information.

If each page you use has a separate URL, you need to reference them separately. In text, list the author (often corporate), date and the section heading and/or paragraph, for example:

Example—in-text citation
​37% of New Zealand’s bird species are at dangerously low numbers (Department of Conservation, n.d., "Our rarest birds", para. 2).

The corresponding reference list entry simply refers to the webpage as a whole, not the specific section/paragraph

Example—reference list entry 

Department of Conservation. (n.d.). New Zealand's remarkable birds. Retrieved from

If there is only one paragraph under the heading, simply use that heading. For example:

Example—in-text citation
Their aim is to “reduce hospital admissions caused by asthma and other respiratory conditions by 25%, by 2025” (Asthma Foundation, 2012, "Our goal"). 

Note: If the heading is long, use a short title in quotation marks, e.g. for the heading “Mandatory Labeling has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives” use a shortened heading. See below. 

Example—in-text citation
" … consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling”, 
para. 4).

If there are no section headings but paragraphs are clearly defined, count from the first paragraph and give the relevant number of the paragraph from which you have take information.

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