Skip to Main Content

Library for Staff: Types of Research outputs

Curious about how Wintec Library can help you? Here's a quick guide to what we offer.

Types of Research outputs

Research output type Description
Authored Book

A major work of research or scholarship. The authors are credited for the entire work, which means authors are not attributed to each chapter and the work would normally be published with an ISBN (in hard copy, bound; CD-ROM, packaged; and/or e-book format on subscription or fee basis). Consists mainly of previously unpublished material and makes a contribution to a defined area of knowledge.


  • monographs - a book or treatise on a single subject usually written by a specialist in the field. The treatment of th subject is detailed and scholarly 
  • loose-left publications where the author(s)/ contributor(s) create or update the entire volume.


  • scholarly editions/literary translations (see below)
  • textbooks with no research component
  • books published by professional bodies that do no report original research findings but report the results of evaluations, or repackage existing information for the benefit of professionals or practitioners
  • pamphlets
  • reports for external bodies, such as government department reports
  • translations of the academic's own work by another person
  • edited volumes
  • reprints
  • updates to a part of a loose-leaf treatise.
Chapter in Book

A contribution to an edited book, consisting of substantially new material. The book should be of a scholarly nature and make a substantial contribution to a defined area of knowledge, and would normally have an ISBN and be available for sale. This contribution is complete in itself but is often linked thematically to the other chapters. It is written by a single author or multiple authors who share responsibility for the chapter.


  • scholarly introductions of chapter length where the content of the introduction reports research undertaken by the editor and makes a substantial contribution to a defined area of knowledge
  • critical scholarly texts of chapter length, for example, in music, medieval or classic texts, or critical reviews of current research
  • updates to a part of a loose-leaf treaties.


  • forewords
  • appendices
  • brief introductions
  • editorials
  • scholarly editions/literary translations (see below)
  • pamphlets
  • reports for external bodies, such as government departments
  • translations of an academic's own work by another person
  • edited volumes
  • reprints
  • conference publications
Conference Contribution - Other

A contribution to a conference that has not been published as a paper or as a published abstract in separate proceedings. An item appearing here cannot also appear in the Conference Contribution - Published category.


  • an oral presentation at a conference (or symposium, meeting, workshop, forum or summit of national or international importance), with or without an accompanying written form
  • a poster that appears at a conference as a poster only and that is not published in the proceedings as a paper or abstract
  • keynote or plenary presentations to a conference


  • role as panel or discussion member (or chair) at a conference
  • opening or closing addresses that are not key note or plenary presentations
  • facilitation of workshops at conferences
  • presentations at a conference that are summaries of discussions or papers presented at the conference
Conference Contribution - Published

A conference paper or abstract published in a proceedings and available independently of the conference in which it was presented. Proceedings may be published in a various formats, for example, a proceedings volume, a book, a special edition of a journal, a normal issue of a journal, usb flashdrive or online via the conferencece website, an organisation's website or a research repository. Although published in a journal or other media, the item is still categorised as a Conference Contribution - Published.
Papers or abstracts in proceedings would normally undergo editorial selection to be included in the proceedings. And item appearing here cannot also appear in teh Conference Contribution - Other category.


  • submission of an unpublished abstract, presentation of the paper AND associated or subsequent publication of paper (this is considered on complete publication, not three separate ones)
  • an abstract published in a proceedings, book f abstracts or journal (or similar publication venue, such as USB flashdrive or website) and available independently of the conference at which it was presented. This form of abstract often is the only published version of the output, appearing as a 'mini-paper' containing an introduction/objective and methods, results and conclusions sections. This type of abstract would normally go through a review process and is not the standard type of abstract submitted with a conference presentation. This form of abstract may be more common in certain disciplines, for example, medicine and geology.


  • papers that are provided only to conference participants (in whatever format) and not the general public or more widely (for example, available for purchase)
  • unpublished conference presentations.
Creative Work

Outputs resulting form creative practice as research, including the following subtypes.

Artefact, Object, Craftwork

Artefacts, objects or craftworks, exhibited, commissioned or otherwise presented or offered for distribution or sale in the public domain, for example, visual arts, craft and cultural creations. Specific examples are: illustration, sculpture, media installations, ceramics, jewellery, metalwork, whakairo, taonga, raranga, or cultural artefacts such as large permanent public sculptures. 

A collection of artworks displayed together can be entered as Exhibition/Curatorial Exercise.


A published/ publicly available score, first performance or first recording by a record label (on CD or DVD) of a musical composition.

Includes (but not limited to): 

  • compositions created while being played for example, electronic compositions, jazz improvisation 
  • published/publicly available score 
  • recordings
  • sound component of a film or video, lyrics, multimedia composition or chant
  • commissioned works
  • combinations or developments of the above.


  • repeat performance of the same work

Design Output

A creative research/problem-solving output in the form of design drawings, books, models, exhibitions, websites, installations or build works.

This can include (but is not limited) to:

  • fashion/textile design
  • graphic design
  • interior design
  • other designs
  • industrial design
  • architectural design
  • multimedia design

Dramatic and Literary Texts

A work of creative prose, poetry, dramatic text or a literary essay.

Includes (but not limited to):

  • novel/creative non-fiction- a published prose narrative of considerable length
  • play - a published /publicly available script, first performance or first distributed recording of a play written (or co-written) by the author
  • poetry - a published poem or collection of poems, or a poetry recital where the work is new
  • screenplay - a published/publicly available screenplay, first public showing of the related film written (or co-written) by the author
  • short fiction/creation non-fiction or essay - a shorter work of short fiction/creation non-fiction, or a published essay
  • a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative or interpretative. 

Exhibition/Curatorial Exercise

A display of a researcher's objects/artworks in a public place (museum, art gallery or other public place) or curatorial work undertaken by an academic to form an exhibition (including catalogue). The objects may have historical, cultural or scientific importance, or alternatively possess aesthetic qualities or extraordinary characteristics. 


  • artwork exhibited in regional, national or international galleries, in dealer galleries or other sites of public presentation
  • artwork publicly presented in the form of site-specific exhibitions, installations, actions, interventions, performances
  • commissioned artworks included in an exhibition as part of a biennial, national or international festival or other recognized art events.


Research, creative or scholarly works in audio-visual form and likely to be first presented in a cinema, on television or online.

Includes (but not limited to):



Contact Us

City Campus
(07) 834 8866
(07) 834 8800 ext 4452