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Te Ara Pūtake: My Academic Pathway: Websites

Your portal to library resources and services

Useful websites

Critically assessing websites

The CRAAP test

This is a great way to critically assess the usefulness of a webpage. 

You can also use it to assess other resources too, as even books and journal articles can date, have bias, use international terminology and so forth.

   Some URL Hints

  • Sites that end in .edu,,, or are websites from educational organisations - like a university, or another tertiary institution. Wintec's website is, for instance. In general, a university or tertiary website is going to be considered fairly reliable.
  • Sites that end in .com are usually websites for businesses - they're making money somehow. New Zealand websites often have the ending, or Australian ones, These are businesses too! Businesses exist to make money, so you need to be careful when using their websites. Check that the business is legitimate, and that the information you are seeing is accurate before you use it. Consider if they have a reason to give you information that only tells part of a story. Use The CRAAP test!
  • Sites that end in .net can be hard to figure out. Sometimes they are business or organisations, sometimes they're personal websites or something else. Look carefully to decide if they are legitimate and good quality, and use The CRAAP Test to determine if you should use it for an assignment.

How to reference a website in APA 7th

Critically assessing resources - videos

C.R.A.A.P (3:03 min)

Alternative Facts (2:30 min)

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