(including encyclopedias and dictionaries with no author).
When referencing a book with neither an individual nor corporate author, use the title of the book in place of the missing author's name in both the reference list entry and your in-text citations. If the title is especially long, use a shortened version of it in text.
Title of book in italic sentence case. (Date). Name of Publisher.
Reference list entry
The complete encyclopaedia of garden flowers. (2003). Bateman.
Page/paragraph numbers are optional for paraphrased information.
The Complete Encyclopaedia of Garden Flowers (2003) depicts ... (p. 19).
... (The Complete Encyclopaedia of Garden Flowers, 2003, p. 19).
How do I reference a resource with an unknown or anonymous author?
|Type of source||Reference list entry||In-text citations||Example|
|Title in author position in Italic sentence case.||Shorten title if appropriate; use Italic Title Case.||
College Bound Seniors (2008) states that ... (p. 27).
(College Bound Seniors, 2008, p. 27).
|Title in author position in sentence case, no italics.||Shorten title if appropriate; enclose in quotation marks ("..."); use Title Case.||... on free care ("Study Finds", 2007).|
See Publication Manual (7th ed.), section 8.14, pp. 264–265.
Locating the author of a source