When referencing in APA style, you need to include an in-text citation every time you quote or paraphrase a source in your work. In-text citations go in the body of your writing, and briefly acknowledge the source of the information you have used. Each in-text corresponds to a full reference list entry on a separate page at the end of your document.
In-text citations typically include:
What does an in-text citation look like?
There are two ways to include in-text citations in your writing, known as narrative and parenthetical citations. You will likely use a mixture of both in your work, depending on whether you are quoting directly or paraphrasing, and the structure of your sentences. Using both kinds also ensures variation in your writing so it is engaging to read.
This form of citation includes the author's name directly in the 'narrative' of your writing, with the year and page/para. number in separate sets of parentheses. The year always appears in brackets after the author's name. You will typically use this style when introducing a direct quotation, but it can also be used when paraphrasing. For example:
This form of citation include the author's name, date, and page/para. number all in one set of parentheses at the end of a sentence containing secondary material. You will likely use this form of citation with paraphrased information, though it can also be used for direct quotations. For example:
The following paragraph shows what a passage of text looks like with both narrative and parenthetical citations (red used for emphasis):
Each in-text citation corresponds to a full reference list entry (below):
How do I cite or reference someone quoted in another author's work (a secondary citation)?
Occasionally, you may wish to quote or paraphrase information in a resource that has been attributed to another author (i.e., not the author of the resource you're reading), or you might want to replicate an image or photograph that you have found in a written work.
When presenting an idea from an author when you have not read their original work but have found it paraphrased or quoted by someone else, you should ideally find the original source and quote/paraphrase directly from that, providing a reference list entry for the original work.
For example, if you read a work by Andrews in which White is quoted, you should try to find White's work, quote or paraphrase from that, and include it in your reference list. If it's not possible to find or read White's work, however, you should acknowledge White as the original source, followed by Andrews as the secondary source. Use the phrase 'as cited in' to indicate one source has been cited in another.
Reference list entry (written information)
Andrews, M. (2006). Management in the modern era: Working with a home-based team. Johnson and Hill.
White (1999, as cited in Andrews, 2006) argues that …
Parenthetical… (White, 1999, as cited in Andrews, 2006).
Reference list entry (images in a written text)
Axcell, R. (2006). The beautiful citation: Capturing the art of referencing. Hidden Library.
(Carlisle, 2013, as cited in Axcell, 2021).
How do I cite a web source that is broken up into headings?
If you are citing a webpage, or another web-based source, like a journal article that has no page numbers, you can use the sub-headings on the page. This is particularly useful for pages that are long, have many paragraphs, and tend to have their information organised under headings.
Use the paragraph number under the relevant heading, as well as the heading.
Reference list entry
Pantaleo, S. (2005). ‘Reading’ young children’s visual texts. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 7(1).
As Panataleo (2005) notes... ("Classroom context", para. 3)
Parenthetical: ... (Pantaleo, 2005, "Classroom context", para. 3).
How do I cite information from non-consecutive pages or paragraphs?
If you have information in the same sentence that comes from two or more different places in the same source and you would like to provide a page or paragraph number, cite the page or paragraphs in the same set of brackets.