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APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide

A Wintec Library guide to referencing in APA 7th edition style

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object Identifier, or DOI, is a unique code/series of numbers used to identify an electronic resource and provide a reliable link to its location online. A DOI looks similar to a URL but unlike URLs, which can change or stop working entirely, a DOI is a permanent link to a particular resource.

DOI presentation

DOIs should only be presented as follows:

Other DOI forms ( or DOI: 123.456.789) should be edited to conform to the above presentation.

If a resource is accompanied by a DOI, you should always include the DOI when referencing.

How do I reference a journal or magazine article with a season instead of volume and issue numbers?

If a journal or magazine is published by season and does not include a volume or issue number, include the season with the date in parentheses. For example:

Reference list entry

Ratner-Rosenhagen, J. (2019, Spring). The end of the world as we know it? Dissent

In-text citations

Ratner-Rosenhagen (2019) argues... (para. 4).

(Ratner-Rosenhagen, 2019, para. 4).


Include only the year in in-text citations; the season is not necessary.

How do I reference a magazine, newspaper, or journal article published on nonconsecutive pages? 

If a magazine, newspaper, or journal article is spread over a number of nonconsecutive pages, give all the relevant page numbers and separate with a comma. For example:

Lewis, G. (2014, July 30). Job losses not isolated. Hamilton Press, pp. 1, 17. 

How do I reference a journal article supplement?

An article from a journal supplement is referenced in a similar way to a regular journal article. There are at least two different types of supplements.

1) A supplement to a particular issue of a journal. Add the abbreviation “Suppl.” after the issue number to indicate you are referencing the supplement to this issue. The relevant page numbers have S in front of them (for supplement).

Bill, C., & Ahn, J. (2015). Integrating emergency care with population health. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16(4.1, Suppl.), S14-S16. 


2) A supplement to a volume of a journal not associated with a specific issue. In this case, simply put in the volume number and then “Suppl.” followed by the number of the supplement.

Rogers, J. W., Kinner, R. L., & Weis, V. (2013).The architecture of the gravitational lens. Astronomicity,16(Suppl. 2), 170-192.

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