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APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide1

A Wintec Library guide to referencing in APA 7th edition style

What does an APA reference list entry look like? 

Unlike in-text citations, which require just a few basic details, each reference list entry is a detailed record of the source from which you have taken information. It typically consists of:

  • The author's surname/family name and initials, or the name of the company, government department, or organisation. that authored the work.
  • The date the work was published, typically the year but sometimes the month and day are required.
  • The title of the work.
  • The source of the work. This could be the name of a publisher, or a URL or DOI for online sources.

You may have to include additional information when referencing some sources (for example, edited book chapters and journal articles). It's best to check how to reference each resource in this guide or Publication Manual

See the reference list page for more details.

How should I format my reference list?

These guidelines will help you properly format your reference list in APA style:

  • Begin the reference list on a new page at the end of your assignment.
  • Title the reference list References in bold and centred at the top of the page.
  • Order your reference list alphabetically by author.
  • Apply a hanging indent to each reference list entry. This means that the first line of each entry is left aligned, while the second and subsequent lines are indented (the Publication Manual recommends 0.5"—the default in Microsoft Word).
  • The Publication Manual also recommends double-line spacing within and between reference list entries, but check your tutor or department's preferences.
See the reference list page for more information and examples.

What's the difference between a bibliography and a reference list?

A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you engaged with or read and which may have influenced or directed your research, whether or not you actually quote or paraphrase information from them in your work.

A reference list is a list of ONLY the sources whose information you quote directly or paraphrase in your work. Your tutors will usually only require you to include a reference list with your assignments.

See the reference list page for more details.

How do I reference multiple works by the same author?

Author of more than one source published in different years

If you have lots of resources / publications by the same author, list according to the year of publication, beginning with the earliest year. Lists sources that don't have a date before sources that do.

Reference list entry

Tait, M. (n.d.). APA ahoy: Learning to love referencing. Lola.

Tait, M. (2014). The joys of referencing: Theories, processes and practice. Lola.

Tait, M. (2019). Inciting the in-text citation: Getting referencing right the first time. Sproutbooks.

In-text citations

Narrative
Tait (2014) argues that ... (p. 182).

Parenthetical
... (Tait, 2014, p. 182).

 

Authors of more of than one source published in the same year

For works by the same author in the same year, arrange alphabetically by title of work and distinguish works by adding lowercase letter (a, b, c) after publication date (determined by alphabetised title, not order of citation in text).

Reference list entry

Tait, M. (2019a). Inciting the in-text citation: Getting referencing right the first time. Sproutbooks.

Tait, M. (2019b). Revere the referencer: Why referencing is critical to successful study. Lola.

In-text citations

Narrative
Tait (2019b) argues that ... (p. 182).

Parenthetical
... (Tait, 2019b, p. 182).

 

Author of more than one source published in the same year with no date

Arrange alphabetically by title of work. Make sure the letters (-a,-b etc) in your in-text citations match up with the letters in your reference list.

Reference list entry

Tait, M. (n.d.-a). Inciting the in-text citation: Getting referencing right the first time. Sproutbooks.

Tait, M. (n.d.-b). The joys of referencing: Theories, processes and practice. Lola.

In-text citations

Narrative
Tait (n.d.-a) argues that ... (p. 182).

Parenthetical
... (Tait, n.d.-a, p. 182).

 

Author of one work is also the co-author of another work

Single-author entries always precede those with multiple authors, even if the multi-author work was published earlier.

Reference list entry

Tait, M. (2014). The joys of referencing: Theories, processes and practice. Lola.

Tait, M., & Reynolds, K. (2011). Information literacy 101: Making library lessons vibrant and engaging. Pukapuka House.

In-text citations

Narrative
Tait and Reynolds (2011) argue that ... (p. 182).

Parenthetical
... (Tait & Reynolds, 2011, p. 182).


More than one author with the same last name

Order authors that share the same surname alphabetically according to their first name.

Reference list entry

Jones, B. (2014). The secret of the happy referencer. Sproutbooks.

Jones, L. (2011). Adventures in APA: Making the most of the referencing journey. Pukapuka House.

In-text citations

Narrative
Jones (2014) argues that ... (p. 116).

Parenthetical
... (Jones, 2014, p. 116).


How can I cite the same source multiple times in the same paragraph?

Including an in-text citation after every sentence that contains paraphrased material can be a little distracting. If you are citing from the same source in consecutive sentences within the same paragraph, you don't necessarily need to repeat the full in-text citation.

To avoid over-citation:

  • Introduce the source of the information using author and date early in the narrative of the paragraph.
  • Refer to the source by the author's name, description (e.g. "the research shows...") or pronoun (e.g. "they also state ...") in subsequent sentences.
  • The year can be omitted from a citation only when multiple narrative citations to a work appear within a single paragraph.
  • Ensure it is obvious to your reader that the information you are referring to comes from the same source.
  • Do not include only a page number in your sentence.

Examples

Lazar (2006) [author and year] describes several aspects of the data gathering process. He [pronoun] notes that the relevance and number of questions can affect participation rates. Lazar [year omitted] also states that questionnaires including more than twenty questions can put potential participants off and the most effective surveys are those of between ten and fifteen questions and that the longer the time investment required for each answer, the less likely participants are willing to get involved. These findings [description of work] suggest that the efficacy of surveys can be determined by  the length of questions and their total number. In order for any company to use questionnaires as an accurate tool for analysis, they must create succinct ways of gathering data (Lazar, 2006, pp. 33-34) [year always included in parenthetical citations]


Author with a middle name

The example below shows how to reference a book with a middle name. If you are given the full middle name, for example, Richard Karl Jones, use the first initial just like you would with the first name.

Author, A. A. (Copyright date). Title: Subtitle in italic sentence case. Publisher.

Jones, R. K. (2007). Nursing leadership and management: Theories, processes and practice. F. A. Davis. 


Examples

Reference list entry

Jones, R. K. (2007). Nursing leadership and management: Theories, processes and practice. F. A. Davis.

In-text citations

Narrative
Jones (2007) argues that ... (p. 182).

Parenthetical
... (Jones, 2007, p. 182).


How do I reference a U.S. patent?

When referencing a US patent, give the name of the inventor, the year in which the patent was issued, the patent's title, patent number, and URL. For example:

Inventor, A. (Patent issue year). Title of patent in italic sentence case (U.S. Patent No. 123,456,789). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. URL


Examples

Reference list entry

Scalise, C. M. (2008). Fruit protection system (U.S. Patent No. 7,377,392). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml

In-text citations

Narrative
The product designed by Scalise (2008) features...

Parenthetical
... (Scalise, 2008).


Should I use the te reo Maaori or English name of a government department?

As both names are official, you can choose to use one or the other, or the full bilingual names (both). Make sure you are consistent throughout your assignment and that the name used in your in-text citations matches your reference list.

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