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APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide1

A Wintec Library guide to referencing in APA 7th edition style

How do I cite a long quotation (40+ words)?

It is occasionally necessary to include long quotations in your work—for example, an important definition of a concept or theory. If the quotation is longer than 40 words, it is known as a 'block quotation' and has a few specific formatting requirements:

  • Start the quotation on a new line
  • Indent the whole block from the left margin (the Publication Manual recommends 0.5", the default in MS Word).
  • Double-line space the entire block quotation
  • Do not enclose the quotation in quotation marks
  • Either:
    • Cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page/para. number in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation or
    • Cite the source in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation.


Jones (2007) describes the importance of mentoring in developing nursing leadership:  

The mentor has the responsibility to create opportunities for professional growth and involvement, whereas the protégé is responsible for responding to these opportunities. The mentor has the responsibility to create opportunities for the protégé to gain recognition for the work accomplished; the protégé is accountable for being responsible and reliable with the work accepted. (p. 26)


For more information, see the Publication Manual, section 8.27, pp. 272–273.

How do I cite multiple different sources in the same parentheses?

If a sentence includes information paraphrased or quoted from several sources, you can include each source in a single set of parentheses at the end of the sentence. Arrange the sources alphabetically by author, and separate each one with a semicolon. For example

(Brown, 2006, p. 72; Jones & Allen, 2005, p. 12; Smith, 2014, p. 35).

How do I cite or reference someone quoted in another author's work (a secondary citation)?

Occasionally, you may wish to quote or paraphrase information in a resource that has been attributed to another author (i.e., not the author of the resource you're reading), or you might want to replicate an image or photograph that you have found in a written work.

When presenting an idea from an author when you have not read their original work but have found it paraphrased or quoted by someone else, you should ideally find the original source and quote/paraphrase directly from that, providing a reference list entry for the original work.

For example, if you read a work by Andrews in which White is quoted, you should try to find White's work, quote or paraphrase from that, and include it in your reference list. If it's not possible to find or read White's work, however, you should acknowledge White as the original source, followed by Andrews as the secondary source. Use the phrase 'as cited in' to indicate one source has been cited in another.

Example - written information

Reference list entry

Andrews, M. (2006). Management in the modern era: Working with a home-based team. Johnson and Hill.

In-text citations

Page/paragraph numbers are optional for paraphrased information.

White (1999, as cited in Andrews, 2006) argues that …

Parenthetical… (White, 1999, as cited in Andrews, 2006).

Include the publication date of the original work (if known). 
Only Andrews' work appears in the reference list.


Example - images in a written text

Reference list entry

Axcell, R. (2006). The beautiful citation: Capturing the art of referencing. Hidden Library.

In-text citation

(Carlisle, in Axcell, 2021, p. 34).

Include the publication date of the original work (if known). 
Only Axcell's work appears in the reference list.
For an example of how the in-text citation looks with the image, figure number and title, see here.

See the Publication Manual (7th ed.), section 8.6, p. 258. 

Can I use acronyms of corporate authors in in-text citations? 

If a corporate author is commonly referred to by an acronym or abbreviation, you can use the acronym/abbreviation in text. Use the full name of the author in your first citation and include the shortened form. Second and subsequent citations of the source can simply use the shortened form. For example:

Style First citation Subsequent citations
Narrative citation According to Manatū Hauora-Ministry of Health (MOH, 2013)...

The MOH (2013) states...

Parenthetical citation (Manatū Hauora-Ministry of Health [MOH], 2013, p. 9)

(MOH, 2013, p. 9)


It is not necessary to include the acronym/abbreviation in the reference list entry; simply write the author's name in full. 


Note: names of government departments
You have the option of choosing to use the full bilingual names of government departments, or one or the other. However, you must be consistent throughout your assignment, and between your in-text citations and reference list.
For example, you may use Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga-Ministry of Education, or Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga, or Ministry of Education.

Do I have to write the full name of the publisher?

  • Omit the words 'Publishers', 'Publishing', 'Company', 'Incorporated', and the abbreviations 'Co.' and' Inc.'
  • Keep the words 'Books' and 'Press'.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object Identifier, or DOI, is a unique code/series of numbers used to identify an electronic resource and provide a reliable link to its location online. A DOI looks similar to a URL but unlike URLs, which can change or stop working entirely, a DOI is a permanent link to a particular resource.

DOI presentation

DOIs on Onesearch may look like this:

However, DOIs should only be presented as follows:

Do this for all DOIs, including ones that look like or DOI: 123.456.789.

If a resource is accompanied by a DOI, you should always include the DOI when referencing

table with multiple citations

Table with multiple citations

If you need to cite several cells or pieces of information within the table, you can use a footnote system:

The footnotes serve as your in-text citation. However, you will need to give a full reference for each citation. See Table reproduced in an assignment above for examples.

How do I cite a web source that is broken up into headings?

If you are citing a webpage, or another web-based source, like a journal article that has no page numbers, you can use the sub-headings on the page. This is particularly useful for pages that are long, have many paragraphs, and tend to have their information organised under headings.

Use the paragraph number under the relevant heading, as well as the heading.

Write the heading in sentence case and add the word "section" after it.


Reference list entry

Pantaleo, S. (2005). ‘Reading’ young children’s visual texts. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 7(1).

In-text citations

Page/paragraph numbers are optional for paraphrased information.

As Panataleo (2005) notes... (Classroom context section, para. 3).

: ... (Pantaleo, 2005, Classroom context section, para. 3).

How do I reference my own work?

With the majority of assignments, you are expected to create a fresh, individual piece of work.

If you are writing an assignment that contains similar information to a previously submitted assignment, it may be tempting to copy and paste. However, resubmitting work from a previous assignment is considered to be academically dishonest. It is a form of plagiarism.

If the occasion does arise that you need to repeat information you have used in previous work, you will need to reference yourself as you would any other information. However, always talk to your tutor first to check that repeating information from a past assignment is acceptable.

If your tutor has given you the OK, and you are unsure how to reference yourself, contact your Liaison Librarian.

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